You have questions—CommScope has the answers
Q. When will 5G really arrive?
The first phase of 3GPP 5G standards is targeted for release in either late 2017 or early 2018 by 3GPP, and 5G should be fully defined by
the end of 2019. The first implementations of 5G will utilize the LTE control channel and core, and will focus on enhancing mobile
broadband. It’s been announced that the 2018 Winter Olympic Games in South Korea will offer the first large-scale taste of 5G, with
commercial 5G deployments following by 2020. The standards will continue to evolve even after the technology is in the market.
Q. Does 5G mean I should avoid investment in LTE technologies?
No, but the approach of 5G should become an important part of your LTE strategy. According to Cisco’s recent VNI report, demand
for more capacity is expected to rise by 50 percent annually prior to the first possible 5G deployments, so LTE growth must continue in
the years ahead. However, this growth should be guided by power, backhaul and site acquisition factors that will be critical to 5G
as well as LTE. Since many bands currently used for 3G and LTE will be reallocated to 5G over the coming years, building a strong
RF path today will ensure a solid 5G foundation tomorrow.
Q. What role will fiber play in the 5G network?
It will have a large role. Industry consensus is that 5G radio networks will opt for fiber as the preferred technology for backhaul
and fronthaul wherever possible because of 5G’s bandwidth requirements. The density of radios for 5G will drive the requirement
for network convergence between wired and wireless traffic, increasing the requirement for fiber network solutions that focus on
providing the density, accessibility and flexibility to support multiple applications needed for the future.
Q. How many fibers will 5G small cell sites require?
This remains an unresolved question at this time as standards and architectures develop, but the answer will likely be somewhere
between two and 12 fibers per small cell site. Utilizing passive wave division multiplexing (WDM) technology reduces the number of
fibers required at each location by sending multiple signals along a single fiber at different wavelengths. These components allow
capacity upgrades at a relatively low cost, without the costs and delays associated with adding capacity by way of new construction.
WDM, packet-based fronthaul and bi-directional optics all can reduce the amount of fiber required at each cell site, while, at the
same time, the new CU/DU split will increase the number of fiber interfaces needed.
Q. What about cloud-based radio access networks (C-RAN) and 5G?
Centralized RAN, where fiber fronthaul allows multiple cell sites to share remote baseband unit (BBU) resources, will eventually
evolve to cloud RAN (C-RAN). In C-RAN architecture, the BBUs themselves will be virtualized in software running in data centers
located at the edges of networks. The 5G architecture for C-RAN has the BBU splitting into two entities—the distributed unit, DU,
and the centralized unit or CU. The virtualized DU would be located near the edge and handle the real-time functionality of the
radio whereas the CU would be deeper in the network and support the non-real-time functionality across many DUs. In addition
to the OpEx savings from centralizing physical (and, eventually, virtualized) assets, C-RAN and its fiber-based architecture will also
enable greater energy efficiency, increased network capacity and lower latency than currently available—three improvements that
are a prerequisite for the successful rollout of 5G-compliant networks.
Q. How will 5G evolve in the complex spaces in high-traffic venues and in difficult-to-cover buildings and mega-structures?
Indoor venues will be a critical part of 5G. Industry analysts claim that 80 percent of all mobile traffic originates indoors, which will
include 5G traffic. In addition, emerging 5G-dependent IoT applications such as smart retail and connected health are concentrated
in commercial buildings. So, 5G will need to perform indoors as well as out.
This will require specialized indoor solutions. For example, 5G outdoors will use massive high-power antenna arrays, which are not
practical for indoor deployments. 5G’s high frequencies are also limited indoors since they cannot propagate well through walls.
Both of these challenges can be solved by coordinating signals across connected arrays of low-power radios.
Q. How will 5G’s move to the edge change power architecture?
Every edge device needs local power, which has traditionally involved ac power grid connections made by electrical contractors.
Between labor availability and permitting hurdles, this can be a slow and expensive process, and provisioning conventional power
may add as much as $15,000 to the cost of a single device connection.
A smart alternative is a hybrid cable solution that combines fiber optics and electrical power in a single cable run that doesn’t require
licensed electricians and streamlines permitting. In combination with high-efficiency dc-dc conversion technologies, this approach
allows the centralization of power management and organization of central battery backups for a cluster of mission-critical edge
devices, such as 5G small cells or fixed wireless radios.
Q. What is 5G crosshaul?
5G crosshaul is an integrated infrastructure solution for both fronthaul and backhaul applications. We expect that 5G crosshaul will
be Ethernet-based, supporting the tens of Gbps required by 5G networks.
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